First up: if your server has limited access to the Internet you should probably download all of these prerequisites and copy them to the server -- because that's what the SharePoint Installer has to do -- it doesn't include these items.
Should you encounter the following message:
Application Server Role, Web Server (IIS) Role: configuration error
- "C:\WINDOWS\system32\cscript.exe" "C:\WINDOWS\system32\iisext.vbs" /enext "ASP.NET v4.0.30319"
- Install process returned (1)
- [In HRESULT format] (-2147024895)
- Error when enabling ASP.NET v4.0.30319
Then the issue is you are missing some of the IIS Role Services -- specifically the IIS 6 Scripting Tools:
Yes this is a screenshot from my book. Yes, I clearly identify that you need these role services. So I must have made this mistake just out of the goodness of my heart in order to help anyone else.